Inguinal hernia is a common disease which can cause serious problems when not treated. It is three times more common in men than in women.
In the beginning, the hernia becomes visible due to an increase in the intraabdominal pressure when standing up, sneezing, coughing and straining, its magnitude and visibility increases unless treated. Although it can be diagnosed by examination, sometimes ultrasonography might be needed.
Although inguinal hernias are perceived as a single condition, they are divided into types. While direct inguinal hernias, especially the ones which occur in older ages, do not cause serious complications indirect and femoral inguinal hernias must be treated. These types of hernias may cause intestinal obstructions and even intestinal gangrene and require surgery much harder than a regular hernia surgery and in emergent circumstances. However, when treated early both the complication rates are low and the possibility of recurrence is very little. To conclude, inguinal hernia should not be neglected and an examination by an expert is required.
Incision hernias occur in the incision sites of previous surgeries. While an inadequate closure of the incision in the previous surgery is a reason for incision hernia, usually wound infection, advanced age, obesity, cancer surgery, emergency surgery and respiratory problems of the patient cause incisional hernia. It is seen in 2-10% of the patients after surgery. The most common symptom is swelling at the incision site. If not treated, swelling increases and it leads to activity limitation which affects daily life. The most important complication is its tendency to lead to intestinal knotting and gangrene. Because of this, incision hernias should be treated surgically soon after diagnosis.
Umbilical hernia is in the form of a swelling in the umbilical pit or an area next to it. It is common in children and usually closes in the first two years of age.
It is rarer in adults however, it should definitely be treated. It is more common in women. Excessive strain, excessive weight, lifting heavy weights, cirrhosis, constipation, prostate, and some troubles during pregnancy are the main reasons causing umbilical hernia. Inside of the hernia there are usually intra-abdominal adipose tissue and small intestines. The inability of the hernia to be pushed in is an important finding and it is a sign of some problems that can lead to intestinal gangrene.
The treatment is repairing the hernia surgically. Usually, patch is used during the repair to prevent future recurrence.